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APP-BINACA is a new synthetic cannabinoid with the molecular formula (S)-N-(1-amino-1-oxo-3-phenylpropan-2-yl)-1-butyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide (C21H24N4O2) . It causes psychoactive effects similar to THC, but the substance is not scheduled in the United States. The “APP” component of APP-BINACA refers to its “amino,” “phenyl” and “propanone” elements, which make it structurally similar to several other synthetic cannabinoids, including 5F-APP-PICA (“PX-1”), 5F-APP-PINACA (“PX-2”) and APP-FUBINACA .
While the specific molecular formula of APP-BINACA hasn’t yet been researched or reported on by the scientific community, other indazole-based synthetic cannabinoids have been studied, and their effects have been documented. APP-BINACA is in the indazole-3-carboxamide family, and based on research collected on other synthetic cannabinoids with this same base, it’s likely that APP-BINACA is a CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptor agonist. By acting on the body’s endocannabinoid system, it can produce cannabimimetic effects. In a 2018 study published in “Forensic Toxicology,” researchers studied the indazole-3-carboxamide-type synthetic cannabinoids known as APP-CHMINACA, AB-FUBINACA, EMB-FUBINACA, 5F-EMB-PINACA, and MDMB-FUBICA, which all have similar structures to APP-BINACA. They found that these compounds all had the ability to activate CB1 and CB2 receptors at a nanomolar level, suggesting a high affinity for binding with them.